Game and probability theory concept
Applied Math

Our Random World—Probability Defined

April 17, 2017

While it’s nice to think that our challenge in life is to get rid of uncertainty and be in complete control of everything, that is not going to happen. One of life’s real challenges is to deal with the uncertain and the unknown in some sort of an effective way; and that is the realm of probability. […]


Understanding Entropy in Terms of Energy

April 30, 2021

Entropy can be measured in terms of energy, in particular, kinetic energy. It is seen that heat spreads out because some atoms with more kinetic energy collide with atoms that have less kinetic energy. Rudolf Julius Emmanuel Clausius study of steam engines show that entropy can be constant, or it can increase. […]

Multicoloured US map.

Gerrymandering in the United States

April 4, 2021

Every 10 years, the United States conducts a census in which the government counts how many people live in the United States. That number determines how many congressional districts that state should receive. The states legislatures then decide how to draw the lines for each of those districts. However, the redrawing of congressional district lines is a controversial issue. […]

European History

The Black Death: How It Ravaged Florence

March 30, 2021

The 1300s saw one of the worst pandemics in the human history. The bubonic plague, also known as the Black Death, made its way into the Italian Peninsula and laid waste to one of the most advanced community of medieval times. […]

Defendants in the Beer Hall Putsch trial. From left to right: Heinz Pernet, Friedrich Weber, Wilhelm Frick, Hermann Kriebel, Erich Ludendorff, Hitler, Wilhelm Brückner, Ernst Röhm, and Robert Wagner.
European History

Adolf Hitler and the NSDAP

February 27, 2021

There was a relative recovery of the German economy from 1924 to 1928. This was also the time when Hitler re-established the NSDAP and attempted to create a network of propaganda cells all over Germany. […]

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