A portrait of William Paterson.
American History

William Paterson and the New Jersey Plan

July 26, 2021

William Paterson took the floor at the beginning of the session on June 15, 1787. He had nine resolutions to submit, which would make up what would be called the New Jersey Plan. […]

An image of the American flag.
American History

Executing the Randolph Plan

July 26, 2021

Edmund Randolph wanted to correct the errors made by the authors of the Articles of Confederation. However, not everyone agreed to his restructuring of the Congress. […]

A Native Indian Man in traditional gear.
American History

How American Indians Adapted to Assimilation and Allotment

July 17, 2021

American Indians faced extraordinary challenges and changes during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. While some accommodated to new circumstances, others refused to do so. There were significant debates between those who wished to reject change and preserve traditional lifeways and others who embraced the progressive opportunities. […]

A group of Native Americans.
American History

How the Allotment Act Dismantled American Indian Kinship Systems

July 17, 2021

Allotment conveyed the message that communal land ownership was un-American. Native communities were defined by taking a census and a tribal roll was created to determine who was eligible for a land allotment. Then a survey was conducted of the reservations and the land was subdivided into parcels. Finally, the government opened the surplus land to non-Indians. […]

Photos of a Native man-on left in his native look and on right in his White American look.
American History

Assimilation of Native Americans through Education

July 17, 2021

The federal government wanted to replace the Indian culture with white culture. The Board of Indian Commissioners believed that civilization required a transition “out of savagery into civilization”. […]

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