Sword and book (Image: Alex Kosev/Shutterstock)
European History

Literature of the Chivalric Knights

October 16, 2019

Most people have an image of the medieval chivalric knight: the hero with impeccable grace and courtesy, saving damsels in distress while jousting for sport. The chivalric code guiding the conduct of knights was embodied in a wide range of literary sources. Investigate the genre of chivalric literature, from “courtesy books” to romances. […]

Celtic cavalaryman (Image: By Sammy33/Shutterstock)
Ancient History

Celtic Invasion: Subduing Greece and Spain

October 12, 2019

The Celtic invasion of Europe began in Italy, and then spread to Greece and Spain. Discover how the Celts became so synonymous with terror and intimidation, that they were hired as mercenaries around the Mediterranean. You’ll also explore some aspects of Celtic culture that remain mysteries to this day. […]

Shot of Advancing Army of Viking Warriors. Reenactment.
Ancient History

Ancient Celtic Culture: Fierce on and off the Battlefield

October 11, 2019

The historical view of ancient Celtic culture necessarily passes through the lens of Greek and Roman writings. Though rife with stereotypes, many of these stories are quite entertaining. Explore the many facets of the Celts as fierce warriors and fitness fanatics who may have indulged in the occasional human sacrifice. […]

Julius Caesar and Divico parley after the battle at the Saône
Ancient History

Viewing the Ancient Celts through the Lens of Greece and Rome

October 11, 2019

Few primary sources exist to educate historians about the ancient Celts. Thus we must rely on the writings of the Greeks and Romans, which are filtered through their biased perceptions. Learn how the Celts were often stigmatized and portrayed as barbarians. […]

Medieval market
European History

The Commercial Revolution in Medieval Europe

October 4, 2019

From the years 1000 to 1300, Europe’s population nearly doubled. This demographic growth led to urbanization, which in turn led to the Commercial Revolution, as Europe became involved in trading around the world. Europe also developed a more sophisticated monetization system during this period. […]

Medieval farm (Image: Unknown/Public domain)
European History

Medieval Farming Technology Transforms Europe

October 3, 2019

Europe witnessed massive population growth in the High Middle Ages, from 1000 to 1300. This growth was largely due to the refinement of medieval farming technology, such as the plow, which improved upon previous models, and resulting in increased efficiency and output to feed more people than ever before. Explore the key technological advances in medieval farming that made such a transformation possible. […]

The Fight Between Carnival and Lent. Painting by Pieter Brueghel the Elder [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
European History

How Europe’s Population in the Middle Ages Doubled

October 2, 2019

Europe’s population in the Middle Ages, between the years 1000 and 1300, roughly doubled. This fact may not seem remarkable to modern readers, but historically, it was unprecedented. Discover previous obstacles to population growth, as well as the factors accounting for this expansion. […]

Medieval knights (Image: Nejron Photo/Shutterstock)
European History

Introducing the Chivalric Knights

October 2, 2019

The High Middle Ages were home to a class of warrior aristocrats perched atop high medieval society, but these nobles were a far cry from the chivalric knights that one often associates with the era. Where did the chivalric ideal come from? Take a close look at origins and nature of the chivalric code. […]

Cliff Palace in Mesa Verde National Park
American History

Explore the World and America before Columbus

April 29, 2019

America in 1492 was not a new world. Find out who lived here before the Europeans headed west in the 15th century, and what the rest of the world looked like before Christopher Columbus.
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