A collection of tombstones at an ancient Bogomil cemetery, East Serbia.
European History

The Roots of Catharism

August 14, 2020

Some researchers believe that the Cathars coordinated with the followers of other religious sects to overthrow the Catholic Church. It also seems that the Cathars were influenced by the mystical secret society that appeared in Greece and Italy around 500 B.C. […]

FrThe ruins of the last Cathar fortress, Montsegur, located in French Pyrenees.
European History

Cathar Beliefs, Rituals, and Holy Books

August 14, 2020

Cathars regarded the cross as a hateful symbol because they believed that Jesus was not a physical being. They gave women social and sexual equality, but ignored Virgin Mary. Labelled as heretics by the Catholic church, the Cathars followed their own system of beliefs and rituals. […]

The remains of Peyrepertuse Cathar castle in France.
European History

Cathars: The Medieval Progressives

August 13, 2020

Cathars were labelled as heretics by the Roman church. The Cathars believed that the Catholic Church did nothing but mislead the people. This tussle led to many violent events like the sack of Béziers and the siege of Montségur Castle. […]

A picture of an early Irish monastic setting out to sea in search of God.
European History

Early Irish Monastics: Myths, Monasteries, and Pilgrimage

August 9, 2020

The early Irish monastic figures played an important role in the spread of Christianity in Ireland and other places in Europe. Some Irish monks set out to sea with the deliberate aim of letting the wind take them wherever it would. Some returned to tell marvelous stories about what they had seen. […]

A picture showing Spartacist militia during the German Spartacist uprising.
European History

Rosa Luxemburg: The Spartacist Uprising and the Final Stand

August 4, 2020

Rosa Luxemburg wasn’t happy with the turn of the events in Germany after the war broke out in 1914. The anti-war socialists established the Spartacus League. The members of the league led a revolt in January 1919 while Rosa had doubts about the timing of the uprising. […]

A statue depicting Karl Liebknecht's proclamation of the German Free Socialist Republic on the wall of New Stables building in Berlin.
European History

Rosa Luxemburg and the German SPD Movement

August 4, 2020

Rosa Luxemburg became an active member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, but she challenged the top leaders of the party. She strongly rejected their idea of nationalism and became the legendary Red Rosa. […]

A monument dedicated to Rosa Luxemburg at the site of her death.
European History

Red Rosa: The Early Makings of a Revolutionary Martyr

August 3, 2020

Rosa Luxemburg fought for the cause of many. She strongly believed that she had just as much in common with plantation workers in South America and persecuted Africans. She prioritized global class conflict over Polish independence and was determined to make her mark on her own terms. […]

old Books in a row R
Ancient History

How Important Are Historical Language Studies and Discoveries?

July 22, 2020

Linguistic investigations about the Indo-European languages have had many appealing stories that led to other discoveries. One of these discoveries took place in China in the late 1800s. It shed more light on the historical and anthropological aspects of this region, which wasn’t known before. […]

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