Conradh Limk 2
British History

Celtic Revival in Ireland: Irish Language

December 6, 2020

One aspect of the ancient Irish culture forgotten partly due to British dominance was the Irish language. In the 19th century, different attempts were made to revive the language. The Gaelic League was the most prominent player in this challenge. […]

Uragh Stone Circle, Gleninchaquin Park, Co. Kerry Ireland
British History

Celtic Revival in Ireland: Political Backgrounds and Aspects

December 6, 2020

The revival of Celtic identity in Ireland was directly tied to political backgrounds. The way the Irish saw themselves in relation to the British determined their Irish identity. Their efforts in bringing back the cultural aspects of ancient Ireland started in the field of sports and reviving two old Irish games. […]

Close up of Scotland under a magnifying glass on a map
British History

The Revival of Scottish Celtic Identity

November 29, 2020

The Celtic identity of Scotland had been taken from them by such rules as the Dress Act. The repeal of the Act and some famous literary works led to the revival of Scottish identity and traditions. […]

Celtic Cross at rock of cashel, co tipperary, ireland
British History

Scholarly Investigations of the Celtic Heritage

November 29, 2020

The scholarly research on the Celtic heritage conducted by George Buchanan in the late 16th century mostly regarded linguistic connections between the Celtic languages. The linguistic investigations led to findings of the relationships between the Celtic peoples. But not all of them were based on reliable evidence. […]

Freemasonic symbol with square, compass, and eye.
European History

Fate of Propaganda Due and Its Grand Master Licio Gelli

November 22, 2020

After P-2 member and money launderer Michele Sindona was involved in a number of cases, he was convicted of murder in 1986, and was soon thereafter found poisoned in his cell. His investigation led Italian law enforcement agency Guardia di Finanza to “King Cobra” Licio Gelli, the mastermind behind the P-2, and the P-2 roster, which contained names of all the members of the lodge. […]

Freemasonic compass and square symbol
European History

The Golpe Borghese, and P-2’s Other Illicit Activities

November 22, 2020

Italy saw a number of politically motivated strikes and protests in the 1960s. These eventually led to the Golpe Borghese in 1970. Many of the events and leaders behind the failed coup were part of the infamous P-2 lodge. […]

Coronation of Philip II Augustus of France.
European History

The Reign of Philip II Augustus in France

November 13, 2020

Philip II Augustus’s reign changed the destiny of France in the High Middle Ages. He defeated an allied attack on France, scared away the English, confiscated Normandy and Brittany, and made his name as a great French king. […]

Medieval king with his queen and knights on guard.
European History

Capetian Dynasty and the End of Civil Wars in France

November 13, 2020

Getting the throne was equal to civil wars in France. Every time a king died, the potential kings would fight over the throne until one got it. The Capetians, on the other hand, created a system that minimized the number of civil wars. […]

A series of kings of France. Ludovic IX the Holy King of France, representative of the Capetian Dynasty.
European History

The Capetian Dynasty in the Medieval France

November 12, 2020

When the Capetian Dynasty began to rule, the Carolingian Dynasty had lost France’s unity to the Viking raiders, Magyar raiders, and Arab raiders. Capetian kings had to put back the fragmented France together and bring the upper ranks of the French aristocracy under their control again. […]

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