A painting representing the ratifying of the Treaty of Westphalia.
European History

The World Before the Treaty of Westphalia

July 12, 2020

The treaty of Westphalia signed in 1648 ended the terrible Thirty Years’ War in Europe. The treaty acknowledged the divided sovereignties and divided authority of the member states of the empire. This new model was a sharp contrast from the earlier models of authority: the church and the state.

Divination scrolls in with Celtic alphabet stones.

The Celtic Fringe: The Breton Hegemony over Brittany

June 28, 2020

The Celtic world was marginalized heavily when the Latin languages took over, but some regions, such as Brittany in France, underwent some sociopolitical changes that put them on the fringe of the fringe. Read on to find out more. […]

Male hands holding Christian Rosary Beads in prayer.
European History

The Religious Impact of the Printing Press

June 21, 2020

The printing press brought along huge changes in the social fabric of Medieval Europe. Read on to find out about the impacts felt in the Religious discourse of the time. […]

Line art illustration of Johann Gutenberg.
European History

The Social Impact of the Printing Press

June 21, 2020

While the impacts of the printing press were felt on all spheres of life, perhaps some of the most significant and rippling effects were felt in the social sphere. […]

Blessed Friar with faith on god walking toward the light

Cathars and Waldensians in the High Middle Ages

June 3, 2020

Cathars and Waldensians were ancestors of the religious reform movements, from the 12th century. Even though they believed in the Bible and followed it even more strictly than the Christian Church, many were executed as heretics. The Church did not want people to be true Christians, apparently. […]

Young priest reading the Holy Bible and stretching his hand

The Leading Heretics in the High Middle Ages

June 3, 2020

During the Middle Ages, society was highly religious. The public widely accepted the Church until a new kind of preachers offered new beliefs that looked as acceptable and worthy of following. Heretics in the High Middle Ages came to banish disappointment, but the Church felt endangered and fought back. […]

Windowpane from Saint Severin gothic church

Heresy in the High Middle Ages

June 2, 2020

In the Early Middle Ages, heresy was an occasional occurrence. However, Heresy in the High Middle Ages turned into a threat to the Christian Church. There were heretical movements formed and preached, and the Church executed many people simply because they did not kill a chicken! […]

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