European History

The Black Death: How It Ravaged Florence

March 30, 2021

The 1300s saw one of the worst pandemics in the human history. The bubonic plague, also known as the Black Death, made its way into the Italian Peninsula and laid waste to one of the most advanced community of medieval times. […]

The painting depicts the plague sweeping through Europe.
European History

The Black Death in Iberia and France

March 16, 2021

The plague in the Iberian Peninsula and France traveled through the countryside via the pilgrim routes, after entering the continent via islands and ports. […]

Image of human skulls stacked on top of each other

Caffa, the Black Death’s Port of Entry into Europe

March 2, 2021

Without a doubt, the siege of Caffa is a stunning story and, as Professor Mark Wheelis puts it, “the most spectacular incident of biological warfare ever”. But at the same time, it’s unlikely that this event was the sole means by which plague made its way into Western Europe. […]

A plague doctor walking along a misty lake.
European History

The Black Death: Europe’s First Contact with the Plague

March 1, 2021

In 1345, the Mongol army was ravaged by the plague. The Mongol forces recognized that they were defeated and that the siege was over. But before they withdrew, they engaged in what microbiologist Mark Wheelis has described as “the most spectacular incident of biological warfare ever”—they loaded up their trebuchets with plague-infected corpses and launched them into the city. […]

A plague doctor looking out of a gothic building
European History

The March of Black Death in Medieval Europe

March 1, 2021

In 1343, the Golden Horde army laid siege to the city of Caffa for two years. But then the Mongol forces were ravaged by a sudden plague, and so in a final act of revenge, they decided to load up the plague-ridden corpses of their dead soldiers and catapult them into the city. Many believe this event was the first contact of the European world with the Plague. […]

Image of the human skull on an old book with dark background.
European History

Was the Black Death Really a Bubonic Plague?

February 22, 2021

There are legitimate reasons to be doubtful of the claim that the Black Death was caused by the bacterium Yersinia Pestis. The means of transmission and an unsuitable climate raise serious doubts regarding this theory. […]

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