A collection of tombstones at an ancient Bogomil cemetery, East Serbia.
European History

The Roots of Catharism

August 14, 2020

Some researchers believe that the Cathars coordinated with the followers of other religious sects to overthrow the Catholic Church. It also seems that the Cathars were influenced by the mystical secret society that appeared in Greece and Italy around 500 B.C. […]

FrThe ruins of the last Cathar fortress, Montsegur, located in French Pyrenees.
European History

Cathar Beliefs, Rituals, and Holy Books

August 14, 2020

Cathars regarded the cross as a hateful symbol because they believed that Jesus was not a physical being. They gave women social and sexual equality, but ignored Virgin Mary. Labelled as heretics by the Catholic church, the Cathars followed their own system of beliefs and rituals. […]

The remains of Peyrepertuse Cathar castle in France.
European History

Cathars: The Medieval Progressives

August 13, 2020

Cathars were labelled as heretics by the Roman church. The Cathars believed that the Catholic Church did nothing but mislead the people. This tussle led to many violent events like the sack of Béziers and the siege of Montségur Castle. […]

A painting representing the ratifying of the Treaty of Westphalia.
European History

The World Before the Treaty of Westphalia

July 12, 2020

The treaty of Westphalia signed in 1648 ended the terrible Thirty Years’ War in Europe. The treaty acknowledged the divided sovereignties and divided authority of the member states of the empire. This new model was a sharp contrast from the earlier models of authority: the church and the state.

Divination scrolls in with Celtic alphabet stones.

The Celtic Fringe: The Breton Hegemony over Brittany

June 28, 2020

The Celtic world was marginalized heavily when the Latin languages took over, but some regions, such as Brittany in France, underwent some sociopolitical changes that put them on the fringe of the fringe. Read on to find out more. […]

Male hands holding Christian Rosary Beads in prayer.
European History

The Religious Impact of the Printing Press

June 21, 2020

The printing press brought along huge changes in the social fabric of Medieval Europe. Read on to find out about the impacts felt in the Religious discourse of the time. […]

Movable metal type blocks, used by Gutenberg in his press
European History

The Social Impact of the Printing Press

June 21, 2020

While the impacts of the printing press were felt on all spheres of life, perhaps some of the most significant and rippling effects were felt in the social sphere. […]

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