In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire was ill-prepared to enter a total modern war. This was a war that would be waged primarily against the British Empire and the Russian Empire at the same time. Yet, war is more than just a matter of numbers and statistics. Sometimes, one can beat the odds. Discover the circumstances the Ottoman Empire was up against and why it’s extraordinary they did as well as they did.
Chemical and biological weapons were outlawed by the Geneva Protocol of 1925, which was to set the ground rules for World War II. The Geneva Protocol was a very good idea, but the actual treaty was completely toothless. […]
The 20th century was an age of revolution. Revolutions in the 20th century didn’t happen everywhere, but they did occur in parts of Eastern Europe, in significant parts of Asia, in significant parts of Latin America, and in a few parts of the Middle East. […]
In the year 220 the last Han emperor was set aside and China broke up into three successor states: Shu Han, Wei, and Wu. This sets up a very short but fascinating age in China’s early history known as the Three Kingdoms period. […]
On June 28, 1914, the heir to the Habsburg throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and his wife were both assassinated in the capital of Bosnia, Sarajevo. Six weeks later, Europe found itself on the brink of the 20th century’s first world war. […]
With three large egos involved, it was inevitable that tensions within the triumvirate of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus would rise. Yet how did the situation deteriorate so drastically that, when Caesar crossed a small river, known as the Rubicon, on January 10, 49 B.C., it was akin to a declaration of war on Rome? […]
The Alexandrians were not really interested at all in anything to do with Egypt. They saw their city as a sort of divine foundation of the Greeks. Plutarch tells us that when Alexander came to Egypt, he left behind a large and populous Greek city that would bear his name: Alexandria. […]