The Pentagon in Washington D.C.
American History

The Pentagon Building’s 9/11 Memorials

March 23, 2019

The Pentagon is one of the most iconic buildings in the Washington, D.C. area. On September 11, 2001, this grand military complex—the headquarters of the Department of Defense—was the site of a devastating terrorist attack. How did the Pentagon memorialize this traumatic national event? […]

Flag of the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire at War

September 28, 2018

In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire was ill-prepared to enter a total modern war. This was a war that would be waged primarily against the British Empire and the Russian Empire at the same time. Yet, war is more than just a matter of numbers and statistics. Sometimes, one can beat the odds. Discover the circumstances the Ottoman Empire was up against and why it’s extraordinary they did as well as they did.


Battle of Agincourt (Image: Chroniques d’Enguerrand de Monstrelet (early 15th century) /Public domain)

The Democratization of the Hundred Years War

December 1, 2017

During the first phase of the Hundred Years War, the kings of France and England tended to hire lots of mercenaries who were paid by campaign. When there was no fighting, the pay stopped. This caused serious societal difficulties because one of the last things you want is a lot of unemployed armed individuals. […]


Biological Warfare: Using Germs as Weapons

December 1, 2017

“Fighting in a battle, he should not kill his enemies with weapons that are concealed, barbed, or smeared with poison.” So say the Laws of Manu, an ancient Brahmin text on moral conduct. […]


Biological Warfare: The Geneva Protocol of 1925

December 1, 2017

Chemical and biological weapons were outlawed by the Geneva Protocol of 1925, which was to set the ground rules for World War II. The Geneva Protocol was a very good idea, but the actual treaty was completely toothless. […]

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