Biological Warfare: The Geneva Protocol of 1925

Chemical and biological weapons were outlawed by the Geneva Protocol of 1925, which was to set the ground rules for World War II. The Geneva Protocol was a very good idea, but the actual treaty was completely toothless. […]

Ancient History

Caesar’s Road to the Rubicon—Rome Goes to War

With three large egos involved, it was inevitable that tensions within the triumvirate of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus would rise. Yet how did the situation deteriorate so drastically that, when Caesar crossed a small river, known as the Rubicon, on January 10, 49 B.C., it was akin to a declaration of war on Rome? […]

Ancient History

How Alexander Built Alexandria—The Myth and Legend

The Alexandrians were not really interested at all in anything to do with Egypt. They saw their city as a sort of divine foundation of the Greeks. Plutarch tells us that when Alexander came to Egypt, he left behind a large and populous Greek city that would bear his name: Alexandria. […]

European History

Otto von Bismarck—Germany’s Iron Chancellor

Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898), the “Iron Chancellor,” unified Germany in three wars and came to embody everything brutal and ruthless about Prussian culture. The real Bismarck had a different character—a hypochondriac, a brilliant and well-read man, a convert to an extreme form of Protestant mysticism, and one of the few Prussians who never served in the king’s army. […]

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