Flag of the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire at War

In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire was ill-prepared to enter a total modern war. This was a war that would be waged primarily against the British Empire and the Russian Empire at the same time. Yet, war is more than just a matter of numbers and statistics. Sometimes, one can beat the odds. Discover the circumstances the Ottoman Empire was up against and why it’s extraordinary they did as well as they did.



Biological Warfare: The Geneva Protocol of 1925

Chemical and biological weapons were outlawed by the Geneva Protocol of 1925, which was to set the ground rules for World War II. The Geneva Protocol was a very good idea, but the actual treaty was completely toothless. […]

Ancient History

Caesar’s Road to the Rubicon—Rome Goes to War

With three large egos involved, it was inevitable that tensions within the triumvirate of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus would rise. Yet how did the situation deteriorate so drastically that, when Caesar crossed a small river, known as the Rubicon, on January 10, 49 B.C., it was akin to a declaration of war on Rome? […]

Ancient History

How Alexander Built Alexandria—The Myth and Legend

The Alexandrians were not really interested at all in anything to do with Egypt. They saw their city as a sort of divine foundation of the Greeks. Plutarch tells us that when Alexander came to Egypt, he left behind a large and populous Greek city that would bear his name: Alexandria. […]

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