A picture showing Spartacist militia during the German Spartacist uprising.
European History

Rosa Luxemburg: The Spartacist Uprising and the Final Stand

August 4, 2020

Rosa Luxemburg wasn’t happy with the turn of the events in Germany after the war broke out in 1914. The anti-war socialists established the Spartacus League. The members of the league led a revolt in January 1919 while Rosa had doubts about the timing of the uprising. […]

A statue depicting Karl Liebknecht's proclamation of the German Free Socialist Republic on the wall of New Stables building in Berlin.
European History

Rosa Luxemburg and the German SPD Movement

August 4, 2020

Rosa Luxemburg became an active member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, but she challenged the top leaders of the party. She strongly rejected their idea of nationalism and became the legendary Red Rosa. […]

A monument dedicated to Rosa Luxemburg at the site of her death.
European History

Red Rosa: The Early Makings of a Revolutionary Martyr

August 3, 2020

Rosa Luxemburg fought for the cause of many. She strongly believed that she had just as much in common with plantation workers in South America and persecuted Africans. She prioritized global class conflict over Polish independence and was determined to make her mark on her own terms. […]

Frontispiece of the first volume of Diderot's encyclopedia in the library of the Teyler's Museum.

Diderot’s Encyclopedia: The Spirit of Enlightenment

July 27, 2020

The Encyclopedia of Diderot was a gift of Enlightenment. It was created with the goal to break with the past in order to usher possibilities for progress in the future. It advanced reason and science as important tools for human perfection […]

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