European History

The History of France: The Road to French Absolutism

Absolutism was a system of government in which all sovereignty resided with the king, true to Louis XIV’s dictum: “I am the state.” Particularly in France and Germany, the wars of religion had seriously weakened national governments and monarchies. Nobles had regained a great deal of power, peasants were in revolt, and there was really a great need for a political rebuilding of monarchies. […]


Military History: The Middle East in World War II

The role of the Middle East in World War II fundamentally altered Americans’ conception of the region. For the first time, U.S. officials saw the geopolitical orientation of the Middle East as vital to American national security—a view of the region that persists to this day. […]


History of Latin America: The Rise of Latin American Nations

Latin America does not usually loom in world history as the source of one of the great traditions. It’s a borrower of forces and influences from other places that then merge with more local elements and traditions, but Latin America has had a varied and significant role in world history. […]

Ancient History

Religion in the Ancient Mediterranean World: Egyptian Pharaohs

Official Egyptian religious culture was centered on temple worship, and temple worship was always carried out in the name of the Egyptian Pharaohs. The concerns of official Egyptian religious culture were expressed in “cult”—that is, in actions of ritual worship. […]

American History

Famous Battles of The American Revolution: The Second Victory at Trenton

Washington’s surprise at Trenton threw the British occupation of New Jersey into a panic. Carl von Donop—who was in command of the outposts at Trenton, Burlington, and Bordentown—now imagined himself outmaneuvered and cut off by unseen Americans, and he ordered a pullback to Princeton, where he furiously began throwing up entrenchments. […]


The History of Portugal: The Dawn of a Seafaring Empire

The exploration and exploitation of Africa and Asia changed the economies, cultures, and political makeup of each of these regions forever. They also had important ramifications for the political and military power of European nations. And it all began with Portugal. […]

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