Egypt's pyramids and sphinx
Ancient History

Why Study the History of Ancient Egypt?

July 18, 2019

We know an incredible amount about the history of Egypt. We don’t know as much about the Mayans, the Assyrians, or the Babylonians, but we do know a lot about the Egyptians. Find out why that is and how best to approach a study of ancient Egypt. […]

Detail of "School of Athens" by Raphael
History

Philosophical Views of the Middle Ages

July 18, 2019

For the Humanists, the Middle Ages were so dismal asto not be worth studying. But what about subsequent centuries of philosophers? How did Enlightenment and Romantic thinkers see this period of history? How do their competing views influence our understanding of whether the Middle Ages was a period to be cherished—or feared? […]

History

Who Invented the Middle Ages?

July 18, 2019

No one in the Middle Ages had ever heard of the term. It’s a posthumous concept, in many ways. If you’d asked someone in the Middle Ages where they fit into history, or how human history was structured, they would have pointed you to Saint Augustine. So who deserves credit for the invention of the Middle Ages as an idea? […]

History

Why the Middle Ages Matter Today

July 18, 2019

Medieval Europe is very far removed from us, both chronologically and geographically. Given how removed the High Middle ages is from us today, the answer to the question of why one should study medieval history is not immediately apparent. […]

Augusto di Prima Porta or Caesar Augustus (Octavian) in Rome, Italy
History

Octavian vs. Mark Antony: The Battle Continues

July 18, 2019

In the power vacuum left by Julius Caesar’s death, a struggle commenced to gain control of Rome. The main contenders were Caesar’s grandnephew Octavian and Mark Antony, who partnered with the famed Cleopatra. Get a behind-the-scenes look at the battle between Octavian and Mark Antony, as well as its aftermath. […]

Fight scene on a relief of the Arch of Constantine, Rome, Italy
History

The Ancient Roman Republic and Its Military Might

July 18, 2019

The ancient Roman Republic was neither technologically nor tactically superior to its foes, and its army was really only a citizen militia. However, unusual military strategies, along with sheer determination, enabled Rome to win many battles, and eventually victory, over Greece. […]

Ruins of ancient Celtic village in Santa Tecla, Galicia, Spain
History

Historical Evidence and the Celtic Identity

July 18, 2019

To study the history of the Celtic people, we first must have a firm grounding in historical evidence. Modern historians have a number of tools at their disposal, and this article offers an overview of some of the major types of evidence. […]

Celtic cross
History

Who Are the Celts? Unpacking a Tricky Identity

July 18, 2019

In yesterday’s textbooks, the story of the Celtic people was fairly straightforward. But in recent years, scholars have uncovered new information that makes it complicated to define the Celtic identity, and, therefore, the Celtic history. […]

Buzz Aldrin walks on the surface of the moon
American History

Geopolitics in the Space Age—50 Years after the Apollo 11 Mission

July 15, 2019

Celebrate the 50th anniversary of the 1969 lunar landing by examining these questions: First, what significance did the Moon landing have in 1969? What does it have now? And the most difficult, speculative, and thought-expanding question of all, what will it mean in the future, say a century from now, in 2119? […]

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