Pope Clement VII and Emperor Charles V on horseback under a canopy, by Jacopo Ligozzi, c. 1580
European History

Monarchs and Kings: Establishing 16th-Century Dynasties of Europe

December 1, 2017

As Europe approached 1500, a generation of stronger monarchs arose. Their goal was to suppress baronial rebellions and subordinate the church and aristocracy. They wanted to make themselves more secure and, ultimately, absolute. They would establish the modern conception of the nation-state with unitary loyalty owed to that state. […]

Obelisk's in Karnak Templ
Ancient History

Erecting an Obelisk: A Monument of Egyptian Grandeur

December 1, 2017

One of the female Pharaoh Hatshepsut’s greatest achievements were the obelisks that she had quarried and erected at Karnak Temple. Let’s talk about just what a great achievement it was—how difficult it was to quarry an obelisk and to erect it. In some ways erecting an obelisk was harder than building a pyramid. […]

Ancient History

Intrigue, Insanity, and the Reign of Commodus

December 1, 2017

Marcus Aurelius departed sharply from the adoptive principle of succession, seeding the advancement of his son Commodus despite his extreme youth. A Decision that would prove to be disastrous. […]

Image of Tower of London
European History

The History of London: A Guided Tour Through the Developing City

December 1, 2017

At the beginning of the Tudor period, London was already by far the most important city in the realm. By the end of the Stuarts it would be 10 times as large, the center of a worldwide empire, and arguably the source of the most vibrant culture in Europe. […]

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