French troops in the Battle of Marengo.

The Influence of the French Revolution on European History

August 3, 2020

The French revolutionaries had done something new in military terms. The French armies that were sent into the field were the largest seen in Europe until that time. They were actively motivated by patriotic ideology, not just passive obedience to kings or princes, as in the past. […]

Detail of painting showing a guillotine, with a cart of people, including Robespierre, at the foot of the structure, awaiting execution.

The First Republic: From the Reign of Terror to Napoleon

August 3, 2020

The Reign of Terror began with aristocrats and enemies of the new republic being guillotined. Within ten months, however, the very leaders of the Terror, including Robespierre himself, were sent to the guillotine themselves. With the end of the new republic, France saw the rise of the new dictator—Napoleon Bonaparte. […]

The ancient book and old goose feather
Ancient History

Reconstructing the Proto-Indo-European Language

July 22, 2020

The Proto-Indo-European language is the hypothetical, reconstructed parent of all Indo-European languages. Linguists have been able to reconstruct this language through a series of comparative methods. Read on to see how this process of reconstruction takes place. […]

Lapel pin from USSR times, bearing the face of baby Lenin.

The Making of Lenin: The Early Life of The Russian Communist Leader

July 16, 2020

Influenced by the Russian radicalism of the 19th century and two personal tragedies, Vladimir Lenin devoted himself to create a revolution. A self-disciplined individual, he was not deterred by ostracism or spies. Immensely popular among his friends and followers, he was successful in creating a brand of Marxism in Russia. […]

Monument to the outstanding figure of revolution and civil war in Russia, Vasily Chapaev.

Indigenous Revolutions in Russia and Imported Marxism

July 13, 2020

The people of Russia had envisioned a peasant utopia, but they lacked a sense of direction. Slowly, they adopted Marxism, which was in sharp contrast to their utopian model. Later, Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known as Lenin adapted Marx’s teachings to Russian conditions. […]

Lenin and Workers Monument outside Gorky Park in Moscow, Russia

Russia: The Unlikely Place for a Proletarian Revolution

July 13, 2020

Years of hardships, coupled with insensitive and unsympathetic political system drove the peasants and the workers against the Tsar. One bloody event on a Sunday sparked the unexpected and the unplanned revolution in Russia in 1905. […]

A map of Germany during the Thirty Years' War.
European History

The End of the Thirty Years’ War: The Treaty of Westphalia

July 13, 2020

The bloody three decades of war ended on October 24, 1648 with the signing of The Treaty of Westphalia. The treaty gave Europe and the world a new formula to live with, sovereign independence of territorial rulers and the right of the religious minorities to practice their religion. […]

A painting representing the ratifying of the Treaty of Westphalia.
European History

The World Before the Treaty of Westphalia

July 12, 2020

The treaty of Westphalia signed in 1648 ended the terrible Thirty Years’ War in Europe. The treaty acknowledged the divided sovereignties and divided authority of the member states of the empire. This new model was a sharp contrast from the earlier models of authority: the church and the state.

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