Diagram of a heat engine converting heat to mechanical work.
Physics

On the Conversion of Heat into Mechanical Work

May 5, 2021

Nicolas Carnot’s improvement of the steam engine was remarkable and praiseworthy. He also derived a mathematical equation for efficiency that is used today to calculate the maximum efficiency of any engine. […]

An image of a thermometer.
Physics

An Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics

May 5, 2021

In contrast to the first law of thermodynamics (the amount of energy can be changed as many times as possible), the second law of thermodynamics puts many restrictions on how energy/heat is utilized (there are only three different heat motions). […]

Science

Understanding Entropy in Terms of Energy

April 30, 2021

Entropy can be measured in terms of energy, in particular, kinetic energy. It is seen that heat spreads out because some atoms with more kinetic energy collide with atoms that have less kinetic energy. Rudolf Julius Emmanuel Clausius study of steam engines show that entropy can be constant, or it can increase. […]

Image showing the concept of entropy.
Science

The Concept of Entropy

April 30, 2021

The basic idea of entropy deals with the measurement of the amount of energy that is not available to work an object. Entropy also deals with the idea that over time a system becomes more disordered. This concept was introduced in 1865 by a German physicist, Rudolf Julius Emmanuel Clausius. […]

An image of solar panels with a wind turbine in the middle.
Science

The Concept and Forms of Energy and Energy Conversion

April 23, 2021

Understanding the concept of energy is important because it can help with solving and discovering other concepts like thermodynamics in physics. It can help with understanding how the whole universe works. In fact, the universe is nothing without energy and its different forms. […]

Science

Theories of Heat: Lavoisier to Count Rumford and Sir Humphry Davy

April 3, 2021

The nature of heat was a matter of intense debate for centuries. On the one hand, there were supporters of the caloric theory of heat; often associated with the influential French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier. On the other hand, there were Count Rumford and Humphry Davy who debunked the caloric theory. […]

Physics

Subtle Concepts of Work and Energy

April 2, 2021

Energy is the ability to do work or the ability to exert a force over a distance. There are three obvious kinds of energy: kinetic energy, potential energy and wave energy apart from the other subtle forms. […]

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