Different isotopes of carbon and their atomic structure.
Biology

Carbon 14 Dating: Complications and Mitigations

September 13, 2020

Carbon 14, a radioactive isotope of carbon, is used to measure the age of an ancient fossil. Since the depleting carbon 14 content is present in all the living things, it can be reliably used to measure the age of a fossil. […]

A closeup view of old tree rings full of carbon content.
Biology

Using Carbon 14 Dating

September 13, 2020

Carbon 14, a radioactive isotope of carbon, is used to measure the age of an ancient fossil. Carbon 14 works on the basis of carbon 14 depletion ratio to other carbon isotopes, which starts only after the death of the organic matter. […]

An image of the ideal gas under perfect amount of pressure.
Chemistry

Ideal Gas Law or Van der Waals Equation?

June 19, 2020

What are the main differences between the Ideal Gas Law and Van der Waals equation? And Why is Van der Waals equation considered as an improvement over the Ideal Gas Law? […]

An illustration giving detailed explanation of the Ideal Gas Law.
Chemistry

Why Ideal Gas Law Is Not That Ideal

June 19, 2020

Ideal Gas law and why it is not that ideal: Analyzing different conditions required of an Ideal gas and how Ideal gases don’t remain ideal under the scrutiny of certain conditions. […]

An illustration displaying the combined gas law and ideal gas law.
Chemistry

The Evolution of Combined Gas Law

June 19, 2020

The evolution of gas laws: From Boyle to Charles and from Gay-Lussac to Avogadro, covering the constant progression of gas laws until the eventual discovery of Combined Gas Law. […]

closeup in the hands of a coal miner (Image: Siberia Video and Photo/Shutterstock)
Chemistry

Coal: A Lesson in Economic Geology

February 1, 2017

Economic geology is the use of materials for the benefit of society. Two such materials, coal and petroleum, comprise 90% of all the energy budgeted in the United States. […]

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