A cutaway diagram of the Earth showing the different layers of the mantle and core.
Earth Science

Plate Tectonics Play a Crucial Role in Sustaining Life on Earth

July 4, 2020

The tectonic plates drift around—moving continents, causing earthquakes and volcanoes and determining the composition of the air we breathe. Plate tectonics play a major role in making our planet so vibrant and abundant, as well as sustaining life on Earth. […]

A group of fossilized ammonites (Image: MarcelClemens/Shutterstock)
Earth Science

Fossils: Life Cast in Ancient Stone

September 27, 2017

How can you turn a soft, organic, squishy organism into a fossil that can survive earthquakes, rising mountains, closing oceans, and colliding continents for millions, perhaps even billions, of years? Just what are the chances of some organism becoming a fossil? Learn about the necessary conditions required for a fossil to form and just how unlikely it is to happen. […]

closeup in the hands of a coal miner (Image: Siberia Video and Photo/Shutterstock)
Chemistry

Coal: A Lesson in Economic Geology

February 1, 2017

Economic geology is the use of materials for the benefit of society. Two such materials, coal and petroleum, comprise 90% of all the energy budgeted in the United States. […]