M41 is an open star cluster in Canis Major. It may have been discovered by Aristotle as early as 325 BC
Science

Aristotle on Astronomy: Supporters and Challengers

July 18, 2019

Centuries after Aristotle’s death, his theories on astronomy were met with some surprising endorsements from the Christian church, most notably Thomas Aquinas. Discover how both Plato and Aristotle’s theories were used to support theological doctrine. Later on the historical timeline, though, both Copernicus and Galileo challenged Aristotle’s views on planetary bodies. […]

The School of Athens. Painting by Raphael.
Science

How Plato and Aristotle Influenced Scientific Thought

July 18, 2019

Although Plato and Aristotle are still regarded as being among history’s greatest minds, their scientific theories may seem quaint by today’s standards. Nevertheless, a closer look at these theories reveals that they were actually quite logical. And, how does Aristotle’s account of the four earthly elements measure up according to today’s thinking? […]

Photograph of handwritten forumula for relativity surrounded by equations
Science

Explaining Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity

July 18, 2019

Einstein’s theory of special relativity clarified a lot of confusion circulating in the scientific community about the nature of light waves. This theory is still quite difficult to wrap your head around, though. We’ll use some mind-boggling, yet concrete, examples to illuminate this theory that forever changed our understanding of space and time. […]

The universe within. Silhouette of a man inside the universe, physical and mathematical formulas.
Science

How Do We Measure the Speed of Light?

July 18, 2019

Before Einstein introduced his theory of special relativity, the science community was perplexed about how to measure the speed of light. Einstein proposed that light waves did not behave like sound or water, and he was right. Discover how he came up with a solution to this puzzling phenomenon. […]

PHYSICS, SCIENCE. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND WITH DIFFERENT FORMULAS. E=mc2
Science

How Einstein Challenged Newtonian Physics

July 18, 2019

For centuries, Newtonian physics was the dominant worldview. However, Einstein shook up the scientific community with his groundbreaking papers on light quanta; atoms; and, eventually, his special theory of relativity. […]

Digital x-ray human body scan interface on blue background 3D rendering
Science

Metaphysics and the Human Body

July 18, 2019

Before the Enlightenment, the metaphysical view of the human body was that of a machine, and all problems with the machine could only be caused by parts of the machine malfunctioning. Removing or fixing those parts was the job of surgeons, and the idea that tiny animals inside us could make us sick—that seemed silly. But a new scientific paradigm born of the Enlightenment changed humanity’s view of the body. […]

metaphysics oconcept
Science

Understanding Metaphysics: Descartes’s Ghost in the Machine

July 18, 2019

Thanks to the Enlightenment and scientific advances over the past 300 years, our understanding of reality has been redefined. But when we talk about redefining reality, we are presuming first that there is a reality and that it’s something we define. Philosophers since the 1700s have been fascinated by this question of knowing reality. It is what philosophers call metaphysics, and Rene Descartes was the godfather of this powerful field of study. […]

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