A man holding a compass in nature
Physics

The Discovery of Magnet and Magnetic Compass

May 17, 2021

The magnetic compass has a magnetically aligned needle that swings around a pivot point to indicate north and south poles. This tool was instrumental in world discoveries. It was also key to exploring the nature of magnetic forces. […]

Diagram of a heat engine converting heat to mechanical work.
Physics

On the Conversion of Heat into Mechanical Work

May 5, 2021

Nicolas Carnot’s improvement of the steam engine was remarkable and praiseworthy. He also derived a mathematical equation for efficiency that is used today to calculate the maximum efficiency of any engine. […]

An image of a thermometer.
Physics

An Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics

May 5, 2021

In contrast to the first law of thermodynamics (the amount of energy can be changed as many times as possible), the second law of thermodynamics puts many restrictions on how energy/heat is utilized (there are only three different heat motions). […]

Science

Understanding Entropy in Terms of Energy

April 30, 2021

Entropy can be measured in terms of energy, in particular, kinetic energy. It is seen that heat spreads out because some atoms with more kinetic energy collide with atoms that have less kinetic energy. Rudolf Julius Emmanuel Clausius study of steam engines show that entropy can be constant, or it can increase. […]

Image showing the concept of entropy.
Science

The Concept of Entropy

April 30, 2021

The basic idea of entropy deals with the measurement of the amount of energy that is not available to work an object. Entropy also deals with the idea that over time a system becomes more disordered. This concept was introduced in 1865 by a German physicist, Rudolf Julius Emmanuel Clausius. […]

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