Portrait of emperor Guangxu

China’s Hundred Days of Reform: The Beginning and the End

April 1, 2021

Based on the reform proposals by Kang Youwei, emperor Guangxu issued imperial edicts and began the Hundred Days of Reform. However, these reforms were opposed by dowager empress Cixi and ultra-conservative court officials, and they organised a palace coup and took back the power. Many secret societies also emerged during this time period. […]

The photo shows a dreamcatcher.
American History

The Native Northeast: Iroquois and Wendat Confederacies

March 15, 2021

The St. Lawrence Lowlands and Great Lakes-Riverine areas was a diverse and vast region of the Native Northeast. Two of the confederacies, the Iroquois and Wendat, had a lot in common, from language and agricultural practices to foodways, gender roles, and homes, and they also engaged in trade with one another. But, all was not peaceful and there were increasing hostilities. […]

Hitler giving a speech.
European History

The Political Upheavals in Germany in 1932

March 15, 2021

Though the Nazis performed well in the July elections of 1932, they were disappointed. In November, their vote share dropped and continued to drop in the regional elections. […]

A German coin with Hitler's face on it.
European History

The Nazis and the Great Depression

March 9, 2021

With the beginning of the Great Depression, tensions multiplied for the already staggering Weimar Republic at home. The Nazis made the most of this opportunity and succeeded in the elections of 1930. […]

Defendants in the Beer Hall Putsch trial. From left to right: Heinz Pernet, Friedrich Weber, Wilhelm Frick, Hermann Kriebel, Erich Ludendorff, Hitler, Wilhelm Brückner, Ernst Röhm, and Robert Wagner.
European History

Adolf Hitler and the NSDAP

February 27, 2021

There was a relative recovery of the German economy from 1924 to 1928. This was also the time when Hitler re-established the NSDAP and attempted to create a network of propaganda cells all over Germany. […]

Young male spy agent wearing a hat, coat, and a tie, holding rangefinder Leica film camera.

Germany’s Surveillance System in the Nazi Era

February 24, 2021

Prior to the Cold War standoff between Eastern and Western Europe, there was, of course, significant state surveillance in Germany during the Nazi regime leading up to—and throughout—World War II. […]

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