# Can You Trust Polling Results?

FROM A LECTURE SERIES BY PROFESSOR MICHAEL STARBIRD, PH.D.

## What’s the one essential ingredient for a trustworthy poll? While there are plenty of pitfalls than can taint results, the key for validity rests in randomness.

When used in statistics, the word population refers to the entirety of the collection of people or things that are of interest. A sample is a subset of the total population.

In general, the goal is to infer information about the whole population from information about the sample. In other words, it’s not in our interest to know only about the people who are asked in the sample. What we’re really interested in is those aspects of the entire population.

### Randomness Is The Key To Good Sampling

If you choose the sample randomly, the advantage is that using probability you can make inferences about how well the opinions of the sample do, in fact, represent the opinions of the whole population.

On the other hand, if you intentionally choose certain groups to reflect what you believe to be reflective of reality, you may bring your own biases to the selection process, and those biases are then going to be reflected in the people whom you ask. Representative of the whole population means that the sample should have the same characteristics that the whole population does.

The whole concept of choosing the sample randomly is that you have a better chance that the proportion of people in the sample with a certain opinion will be, in fact, the same as the entire population.

### Roosevelt Versus Landon

The most familiar occasion where this comes up is before an election, when pollsters try to find out what proportion of the voters will vote for the Democratic candidate and what proportion will vote for the Republican candidate.

There are several major pitfalls in the way sampling can be done. In the 1936 U.S. presidential election, the two primary contenders for the presidency were the incumbent, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and the Republican opponent, Alfred Landon. At the time, the magazine The Literary Digest had for several elections conducted polls to predict who would win the coming election. They had successfully predicted the outcomes in several elections, so this was a major poll.

In the 1936 election, The Literary Digest sent out 10 million voting surveys, and they received 2.4 million replies. Based on those surveys, The Literary Digest predicted that Landon would win in a landslide, with 370 electoral votes to Roosevelt’s 161.

Well, you may not recall reading about President Landon in your American history books. Obviously he did not win the presidency.

In fact, the only correct aspect of The Literary Digest’s prediction was that the election was a landslide, but unfortunately for them, the landslide was the other way. Roosevelt won the election with 62 percent of the popular vote and by an incredible 523 electoral votes to 8 for Landon.

Obviously, The Literary Digest’s sampling method was not representative of the whole population.

### Pitfall 1: A Wealthy Audience

What went wrong? Well, one thing was that The Literary Digest got their samples from several different kinds of lists. One list was the subscribers to their own magazine. They also looked at car registration records, and that was an available list of a lot of names, and they sent their surveys to those people. They also used telephones.

The people to whom The Literary Digest had sent their survey were likely wealthy people and obviously their opinions were not representative of the population at large.

The people to whom The Literary Digest had sent their survey were likely wealthy people and obviously their opinions were not representative of the population at large.

The year 1936 was in the middle of the Great Depression, and many people were having financial problems and were cutting back on their budgets. Probably one of the first things to go in tight times would be one’s subscription to The Literary Digest. In addition, not many people owned cars or telephones. These were luxury items for a lot of people in 1936. Because of this, the people to whom The Literary Digest had sent their survey were likely wealthy people and obviously their opinions were not representative of the population at large.

### Pitfall 2: A Voluntary Response

The Literary Digest poll’s second pitfall was that it was a voluntary response survey.

This is a transcript from the video series Meaning from Data: Statistics Made Clear. It’s available for audio and video download here.

The magazine sent out all these surveys, and only some people replied. The problem with this is that sometimes people who send back replies have a particular bias. Instead of sending back replies in the same proportion, maybe some people with a certain opinion are more apt to reply. The bias that can come from voluntary responses may not just give an answer that’s a little off, but it can give a completely erroneous view of reality.

Because of this story, The Literary Digest, which otherwise would simply be lost in the dustbin of history, will now live on forever in statistics textbooks as a great example of bias in sampling.

### The Father of Random Polling

A success that came from this Literary Digest fiasco is the story of George Gallup.

At the time, Gallup was a young statistician just starting out, and he did his own poll for the 1936 election. He took a survey of 50,000 people and made two predictions of his own for the election.

1. He correctly predicted that Roosevelt would win the election.
2. He also predicted that The Literary Digest poll would be wrong and estimated how wrong they would be before their poll came out.

He was one of the people who introduced the concept of randomness in political polling as a key feature of sampling techniques. That is absolutely one of the fundamental criteria to look for when you’re evaluating whether a sample survey is, in fact, a good one.

### The Gold Standard

Randomness is a basic ingredient of essentially all of the standard statistical techniques, and the reason it’s an ingredient is because the analysis of randomness and probability that allow us to apply mathematics to the understanding of the results that we get.

The most basic way to get an accurate sample is to take a sample that’s called a simple random sample, which is, as the name implies, simply to take the entire population you’re interested in, and say how many people you want to survey and randomly select them from that group, and then get the answer from each member of that selected sample.

Of course, there are lots of problems in getting the answer from that selected sample. But the simple random sample is the gold standard for finding a representative sample.

###### From the lecture series Meaning from Data: Statistics Made Clear Taught byProfessor Michael Starbird, Ph.D.

1. No!

2. It is becoming evermore common for political parties to encourage their members to answer questionnaires like this one in order to get their membership on various polling companies data bases.

3. A new problem has also developed in the sampling theory. Many people are now totally skeptical of the US News Media and attach all polls to the Media. The people then lie and grin – screw you, news journalist! Which says polls much ask a few more questions that might help weed out the “lies.” That starts another problem- the phrasing of questions can be biased or read as biased. Polling may no longer be useful.

4. I am 82 years old and have been a voter for most of that tie. That said, I have never been contacted by ant Pool. So the answer is NO. They are rigged.

5. I have asked to participate in several polls, including Gallup. This article was interesting and I learned from it how Gallup poll became the gold standard of polls…Thank-you.

6. Polling is wildly accurate. In This century we have had a pair of bloodless coup de ta’s. The overthrow of the government via stealing of a free election. The republicans have won the popular vote once in half a century. That my friend’s is called a trend.

7. This lecture is a nice bit of History that I didn’t know. In the current environment of the U.S., one can only vote one’s conscience after some extensive research. Political polling is biased and has been prostituted into propaganda. Just don’t listen to or be influenced by the political polls.